Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Theories of Adolescent Risk Taking
Theories of child identical Risk TakingAdolescence is consumen as a period when an individual is uneffective to fittingly assess encounter. There is a normal belief that juveniles deliberate that they atomic number 18 untouchable to exploit a encounter thereby unable to perceive accepted behaviors. Be arrest of this, striplings argon adjudged to be less aw be of attempt. This provides the reason the reason why there are legal limitations on adolescents right (Bellotti, 1979, Gardner, Scherer Tester, 1989). On the other hand, more(prenominal) or less view adolescents as having the cap world power to making informed and competent decisions as expectants (Melton, 1984). This mean that some key adolescents as seeing themselves as in unguarded.This idea is supported by Elkinds hypothesis (1967, 1978). In this theory, Elkind argues that masses become cognitively egocentric when they first enter into formal operations. Because of this, adolescents see that they a re unique and special making them immune to certain involvements. They see themselves as invulnerable to harm. This geocentricism and inphoto are expected to reduce as the individual moves from middle to late adolescents. alone some believe that this theory on geocentricism is not associated with adolescence transition into formal operations, and that it is not limited to adolescence merely (Frankenbreger, 2000, Gray Hudson, 1984).In addition, research has not pitch each dictatorial correlation amongst geocentricism and intuition of invulnerability (Dolcini et al., 1989). Social researches on adolescence flummox not been helpful in resolving the debate between adolescents apprehension of invulnerability to risk and adolescents competence. There are numerous inconsistent studies on this issue. There are factors that whitethorn be responsible for these inconsistencies.According to Millstein and Halpern-Felsher (2002), these inconsistencies whitethornhap due to the methods used to taproom risk perception. Some researchers used probabilistic assessment, that is, the chance that an outcome will occur (Quadrel et al., 1993, Gochman Saucier, 1982) while other researchers like Finn and Brown (1981, Cohn, Macfarlane et al. (1995) examined adolescents perception about harm, that is the amount of harm that could be caused(p. 401). This has the ability to cause disparity between the studies and similarly questions the validity of these findings. some other cause of this disparity is failure of researchers to consider behavioural experiences across eons and control for it. mend some of the earlier studies that focused on adolescents age group and those that compared adolescents and adults found a significant difference in awareness of and consideration of risks (Ambuel Rappaport, 1992, Chassin et al., 2001), some others found few differences. One of the studies that did not support the idea of adolescents invulnerability is the one conducted by Millster and Halpern-Felsher (2002). In their studies, they took into account the above identified problems in report carding adolescents and young adults risk perception. While other researchers used participants parents to measure comparison between adolescents and adults risk perception, these researchers use unrelated childless adult to eliminate this problem. Their reason for using unmarried young childless adults was because those with children whitethorn experience a greater awareness of risk because of their positions as parents compared to childless and non parent/unmarried young adults.This is because using adolescent participants parents whitethorn bring forth problem of non independence between the groups. They used 433 adolescents and 144 young adults between the ages of 20 30 as comparison group from racially different population and from geographically and demographically similar area. They tried to find out age differences in risk judgement and if adolescents risk judgm ent differ from those of adults, and if vulnerability perceptions to harm are more prevai lead in adolescents than adults.In the leave alone, they found a significant difference between young adults and adolescents risk judgment. Also, there was a significant age group differences between older adolescents and younger adolescents. cured adolescents assessed probability of mischievous outcome to be lower than younger adolescents. The register challenges the general belief that due to adolescents developmental status, they view themselves as invulnerable as well as underestimate risk. Adolescents dont see themselves as invulnerable, though they may fail to perceive specific risk related to a specific behavior, and at the same time, may over estimate the benefit of such(prenominal) behavior. Even after controlling for behavioral experiences, younger adolescents perception of risk was greater than older adolescents, and adolescents perceived greater risk that young adults. Because younger adolescents relieve oneself been taught that engaging in untamed behavior results in significant risk, they are likely to believe it (Millstein Helperin-Felsher, 2001). But with plusd exposure to peer risk behavior coupled with maturation, adolescents are able to observe that not all speculative behaviors have a disconfirming outcome. The researchers observed that the participants over estimated risk. Young people already have a sense of heightened vulnerability and that continuous emphasis on the negative outcome of risk might be counterproductive, in that it might difference with adolescents own experiences as they might realize that not all idle behaviors result in negative outcome. The result of this study is in argumentation with the popular belief that adolescents perceive risk less than adults do and that adolescents alike see themselves as invulnerable. other research that is consistent with the above finding is the work do by Baumgartner and Peter (2010) . They investigated adolescents and adults perception of internet risk, oddly online inner risk. Previous studies on online risks founf that adolescents are vulnerable (Mitchell, Finkellor Wolak, 2001, 2007b, Yabarra, Mitchell, Finkellor, Wolak, 2007). These findings are ground on the assumption that adolescents are massive internet users. There are scientific/research evidence to prove that adolescents are more vulnerable online that adults and that adolescents reported a very negative feeling such as being afraid from online familiar solicitation (Mitchell et al., 2001). Some reasons for this unwanted online knowledgeable solicitation include the fact that due to adolescents massive developmental changes at his stage, the need to relate to others increases thereby making them vulnerable to unwanted knowledgeable solicitation (Singelman Rider, 2003). On the other hand, adults may not be stinging on interacting with strangers, thereby decreasing the risk of unwanted knowl edgeable solicitation.Another reason for this vulnerability is that adolescents spend more time online and this may increase their chances of receiving unwanted online sexual solicitation (Jones Fox, 2009).The empirical evidence to support that adolescent take greater risk than adolescents have been inconsistent. The difference between adults and adolescents risk perception may be because adolescents today are more enormous-familiar with internet amd newer social networks compared to adults. In their study of 1765 Dutch adolescents and 1026 Dutch adults, done done online survey, Baumgartner and Peter (2010) investigated age and gender differences in unwanted online sexual solicitation. The result showed that fe manlike adolescents and young female adults are at the greatest risk of this online harassment. This may be because of the specific online activities that they are complicated in, or may be because they are just the targets of these perpetrators. A reason for this may be because these groups of people use the internet as a agency of communication rather than for entertainment, and the the use of internet for chatting increases the chance of unwanted sexual solicitation. Because one of the challenges during adolescence is identity formation, these adolescents may use the internet to relate to others by self disclosure or to share intimate details (Mazur Kozarian, 2010, Calvert, 2002). They in addition found that young girls find this undesirable and may be more emotionally and cognitively vulnerable to such messages compared to older female adult. This means that adolescent girls feel vulnerable with such behaviors, this is in contrast to the general belief that adolescents perceive some behaviors as hazardous. An emerging adult may cope better in such situation, but an inexperienced adolescent may be more vulnerable and may need shelter than adults. There was also evidence of increased online risk for older adolescents male and adults compared to younger adolescents. This may be because as one gets older, one bear ons in more risky behavior compared to when one was younger.This is evidence against the notion of adolescents invulnerability. Another reason for this increased online sexual risk found among older adolescents and adults may be because sexual interest does not decline with age or after adolescence, and sexuality being an important part of adults, engaging in online sexual risk may help satisfy these sexual needs.though these evidence that adolescents do not engage in more risk than adults does not mean or suggest that adolescents behaviors should be neglected. Risk behaviors are interpreted differently by adolescents and adults (Parsons et al., 1997). It is seen as a normal thing when adults go out private information about themselves online based on the assumption that adults can handle any negative consequence from such behavior unlike adolescents, such behaviors may be frowned at because any negative outc ome may be detrimental and may imprint their normal development.In addition, although risk may have potential negative outcome, it also serves an important cause in adolescent development (Jessor, 1992, Igra Irwin, 1996) as it helps adolescents develop autonomy and maturity. It also helps in coping with anxiety and frustration. Online sexual risk may also help adolescents in developing their sexual identity. Hence, online sexual risk behavior should not be viewed as detrimental to adolescents, but it could also serve to facilitate healthy development. This study shows that adolescents, especially younger adolescents are risk aware, and that the fear of adults about adolescents online sexual risk behaviors is unfounded.A study by Haase and Silbereisen (2011) linked the effect of negative make a motion on adolescents risk perception. This study is in contrast to the above studies that adolescents have a spiriteder risk perception than adults. And that this depends on the accept. That perception depends on our mood or emotion either positive or negative. new(prenominal) studies have linked positive match to lower risk perception (Johnson Tversky, 1983). This means that adolescents who are emotionally open are influenced by this. The Haase and Silbereisen (2011) study examined the effect of positive affect on adolescents and adults risk perception. The study involved the use of audio-visual method to induce emotion. Research has shown that negative emotion leads to a higher risk taking, because the individual tries to overcome the bad mod through engaging in activities that are rewarding in short run and can potentially have harmful effect on the long run (Tice, Bratslavsky Baumeister, 2001). But from the result of the study, they found that when an individual is in a good mood, he is less likely to perceive some risky behaviors like smoking and alcohol drinking as risky. The study also examined the effect of mood across age groups. It was found that posi tive affect lowers risk perception across age groups, whereas negative affect led to lower risk perception among mid adolescents but did not for early on adolescents and young adults. This may be because developmentally, mid adolescents have a high stress vulnerability (Spear, 2000), and a higher risk taking (Steinberg, 2008).Therefore, it has been shown that affectional influences play a big role in adolescents risk taking. When adolescents are in good mood and excited, they tend to indulge in risky behaviors or they may judge some behaviors as risk free. Because previous studies have used questionnaire to assess adolescents risk taking, using experiment showed that adolescents partake in risk behavior and that this risk taking is influenced by affect either positive or negative. This means that adolescents and adults may be more risk averse when they are face up with situations that do not give rise to great emotions, and this may not be captured in questionnaire study. This re sult in conflicting findings on adolescents risk taking, but using experimental design may show the real situation when the adolescents are faced with strong emotions. Feelings may alter risk perception.