Sunday, May 19, 2019
Definition of Measurement Measurementis the process or the result of determining theratioof a natural quantity, such as a length, time, temperature etc. , to a whole of measure, such as the meter, second or degree Celsius. The science of measurement is calledmetrology. The English forward-lookingsworthinessmeasurementoriginates from theLatinmensuraand the verbmetirithrough theMiddle Frenchmesure. Reference http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Measurement Measurement Quantities *Basic Fundamental criterion institute/s (Common) step type/s SI unit name SI unit token Dimension symbol Length, width, height, depth a, b, c, d, h, l, r, s, w, x, y, z metre m L Time t second s T Mass m kilogram kg M Temperature T, ? kelvin K ? gist ofsubstance, emergence of ramparts n mole mol N Electric current i, I ampere A I Luminous intensity Iv wax light Cd J Plane angle ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? radianian rad dimensionless Solid angle ? , ? steradian sr dimensionless Derived Quantities set Common) Quantity name/s (Common) Quantity symbol SI unit Dimension (Spatial)position (vector) r,R,a,d m L Angular position, angle of rotation ( go off be treated as vector or scalar) ? ,? rad dimensionless Area, cross-section A, S, ? m2 L2 Vector argona(Magnitude of outdoors area, directed normal totangentialplane of surface) m2 L2 Volume ? , V m3 L3 Quantity Typical symbols Definition Meaning, usage Dimension Quantity q q Amount of a berth q Rate of motley of quantity,Time derivative Rate of change of property with respect to time q T? 1 Quantity spacial density ? volume density (n= 3),? = surface density (n= 2),? = linear density (n= 1)No roughhewn symbol forn-space density, here(predicate)? nis used. Amount of property per unit n-space(length, area, volume or higher dimensions) qL-n Specific quantity qm Amount of property per unit push-down stack qL-n Molar quantity qn Amount of property per mole of substance qL-n Quantity gradient (ifqis ascalar field. Rate of change of property with respect to position q L? 1 spectral quantity (for EM waves) qv, q? , q? Two definitions are used, for frequency and wavelength Amount of property per unit wavelength or frequency. qL? 1(q? )qT (q? ) Flux, flow (synonymous) ? F,F Two definitions are usedTransport mechanics,nuclear natural philosophy/particle physics Vector field Flow of a property though a cross-section/surface boundary. q T? 1L? 2, F L2 Flux density F Flow of a property though a cross-section/surface boundary per unit cross-section/surface area F Current i, I Rate of flow of property through a crosssection/ surface boundary q T? 1 Current density (sometimes called flux density in transport mechanics) j, J Rate of flow of property per unit cross-section/surface area q T? 1L? Reference http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Physical_quantityGeneral_derived_quantities http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Physical_quantityBase_quantities System of Units Unit name Unit symbol Quantity Definition (Incomplete) D imension symbol metre m length * captain(1793)1? 10000000of the meridian through Paris between the unification Pole and the EquatorFG * Current(1983) The distance travelled by light in vacuum in1? 299792458of a second L kilogramnote 1 kg mass * Original(1793) Thegravewas defined as beingness the tilt mass of matchless cubic decimetre of pure water at its frost point.FG * Current(1889) The mass of the International Prototype Kilogram M second s time * Original(Medieval)1? 86400of a day * Current(1967) The duration of9 192 631 770periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the ii hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom T ampere A electric current * Original(1881) A tenth of the electromagnetic CGS unit of current. The CGS emu unit of current is that current, flowing in an arc 1cm long of a circle 1cm in rundle creates a field of one oersted at the centre. 37. IEC * Current(1946) The constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7newton per metre of length I kelvin K thermodynamic temperature * Original(1743) Thecentigrade scaleis obtained by assigning 0 to the freezing point of water and 100 to the boiling point of water. * Current(1967) The fraction 1/273. 16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water ? mole mol amount of substance * Original(1900) The molecular weight of a substance in mass grams. ICAW * Current(1967) The amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0. 012 kilogram of carbon 12. note 2 N cadmium cd luminous intensity * Original(1946)The value of the new candle is such that the b proper(a)ness of the salutary radiator at the temperature of solidification of platinum is 60 new candles per square centimetre * Current(1979) The luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540? 012hertz and that has a refulgent intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. J Reference http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/International_System_of_Units scientific Notation Scientific bankers bill(more comm tho cognise asstandard form) is a way of writing chips that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in ten-fold form. Scientific notation has a offspring of useful properties and is comm yet used in calculators and by scientists, mathematicians and engineers.In scientific notation all song are written in the form of (atimes ten increase to the power ofb), where the business leaderbis aninteger, and thecoefficientais anyreal itemise(however, seenormalized notationbelow), called thesignificandormantissa. The term mantissa whitethorn cause confusion, however, because it can also refer to thefractionalpart of the commonlogarithm. If the bend is negative then a minus sign precedesa(as in ordinary tenfold notation). -Converting numbers Converting a number in these cases means to either convert the number into scientific notation form, convert it back into denary form or to change the exponent part of the equation. None of these diversify the actual number, only how its expressed. Decimal to scientific First, move the quantitative separator point the required amount,n, to puddle the numbers value within a desired range, between 1 and 10 for normalized notation. If the tenfold was travel to the left, caterx10n to the right,x10-n.To represent the number 1,230,400 in normalized scientific notation, the decimal separator would be moved 6 digits to the left andx106appended, resulting in1. 2304? 106. The number -0. 0040321 would have its decimal separator shifted 3 digits to the right sooner of the left and yield? 4. 0321? 10? 3as a result. Scientific to decimal Converting a number from scientific notation to decimal notation, first remove thex 10non the end, then shift the decimal separatorndigits to the right (positiven) or left (negativen). The number1. 2304? 06would have its decimal separator shifted 6 digits to the right and become 1 230 400, while? 4. 0321? 10? 3would have its decimal separator moved 3 digits to the left and be-0. 0040321. Exponential Conversion between dissimilar scientific notation government agencys of the same number with various exponential values is achieved by performing opposite operations of multiplication or division by a power of ten on the significand and an subtraction or addition of one on the exponent part. The decimal separator in the significand is shiftedxplaces to the left (or right) and 1xis added to (subtracted from) the exponent, as shown below. . 234? 103=12. 34? 102=123. 4? 101= 1234 world-shaking Figures The operative estimates(also cognise as crucial digits, and often shortened tosig figs) of a number are thosedigitsthat have got meaning contributing to its clearcutn ess. This includes all digitsexcept * leadingandtrailing zeroswhich are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number. * gilded digits introduced, for example, by calculations carried out to greater precision than that of the original data, or measurements reported to a greater precision than the equipment supports.Inaccuracy of a measuring device does not affect the number of significant figures in a measurement made using that device, although it does affect the accuracy. A measurement made using a plastic ruler that has been left out in the sun or a beaker that unbeknownst to the technician has a few glass in beads at the bottom has the same number of significant figures as a significantly different measurement of the same physical object made using an unaltered ruler or beaker. The number of significant figures reflects the devices precision, but not itsaccuracy.The basic concept of significant figures is often used in corporation withrounding. Rounding to significa nt figures is a more general-purpose technique than rounding tondecimal places, since it handles numbers of different scales in a uniform way. For example, the population of a city might only be known to the nearest thousand and be stated as 52,000, while the population of a demesne might only be known to the nearest million and be stated as 52,000,000. The motive might be in mistake by hundreds, and the latter might be in error by hundreds of thousands, but both have two significant figures (5 and 2).This reflects the fact that the importation of the error (its probable size relative to the size of the quantity being measured) is the same in both cases. Computer representations of blow point numberstypically use a form of rounding to significant figures, but withdouble star numbers. The number of correct significant figures is closely related to the notion ofrelative error(which has the advantage of being a more accurate measure of precision, and is independent of the radix of the number system used).The term significant figures can also refer to a crude form of error representation based some significant-digit rounding for this use, seesignificance arithmetic. The rules for identifying significant figures when writing or interpreting numbers are as follows * All non-zero digits are considered significant. For example, 91 has two significant figures (9 and 1), while 123. 45 has five significant figures (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). * Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant. Example 101. 12 has five significant figures 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2. Leading zeros are not significant. For example, 0. 00052 has two significant figures 5 and 2. * Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant. For example, 12. 2300 has six significant figures 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 and 0. The number 0. 000122300 still has only six significant figures (the zeros before the 1 are not significant). In addition, 120. 00 has five significant figures since it has 3 trailing zeros. This convention clarifies the precision of such numbers for example, if a measurement very(prenominal) to four decimal places (0. 001) is given as 12. 23 then it might be understood that only two decimal places of precision are available. Stating the result as 12. 2300 makes clear that it is precise to four decimal places (in this case, six significant figures). * The significance of trailing zeros in a number not containing a decimal point can be ambiguous. For example, it may not always be clear if a number like 1300 is precise to the nearest unit (and just happens coincidentally to be an exact multiple of a hundred) or if it is only shown to the nearest hundred due to rounding or un authorizedty.Various conventions exist to address this issue * A lugmay be placed over the last significant figure any trailing zeros future(a) this are insignificant. For example, 1300 has three significant figures (and hence indicates that the number is precise to the neares t ten). * The last significant figure of a number may be underlined for example, 2000 has two significant figures. * A decimal point may be placed after the number for example 100. indicates specifically that three significant figures are meant. * In the combination of a number and aunit of measurementthe ambiguity can be voided by choosing a suitableunit prefix. For example, the number of significant figures in a mass specified as 1300g is ambiguous, while in a mass of 13h? g or 1. 3kg it is not. Rounding Off Numbers Roundinga numerical value means replacement it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more unmistakable representation for example, replacing ? 23. 4476 with ? 23. 45, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression v2 with 1. 414. Rounding is often through on purpose to obtain a value that is easier to write and handle than the original.It may be make also to indicate the accuracy of a computed number for example, a quantit y that was computed as 123,456 but is known to be accurate only to within a few hundred units is better stated as about 123,500. On the other hand, rounding introduces someround-off errorin the result. Rounding is almost unavoidable in many computations especially when dividing two numbers inintegerorfixed-point arithmetic when reckoning mathematical functions such assquare roots,logarithms, andsines or when using afloating pointrepresentation with a fixed number of significant digits.In a sequence of calculations, these rounding errors generally accumulate, and in certainill-conditionedcases they may make the result meaningless. Accurate rounding oftranscendental mathematical functionsis difficult because the number of spare digits that need to be calculated to resolve whether to round up or down cannot be known in advance. This problem is known as the table-makers dilemma. Rounding has many similarities to thequantizationthat occurs whenphysical quantities essential be encode d by numbers ordigital signals. Typical rounding problems are pproximating an irrational number by a fraction, e. g. ,? by 22/7 approximating a fraction with periodic decimal expansion by a finite decimal fraction, e. g. , 5/3 by 1. 6667 replacing arational numberby a fraction with smaller numerator and denominator, e. g. , 3122/9417 by 1/3 replacing a fractionaldecimal numberby one with fewer digits, e. g. , 2. 1784 dollars by 2. 18 dollars replacing a decimalintegerby an integer with more trailing zeros, e. g. , 23,217 people by 23,200 people or, in general, replacing a value by a multiple of a specified amount, e. . , 27. 2 seconds by 30 seconds (a multiple of 15). Conversion of Units Process The process of transmutation depends on the specific situation and the mean purpose. This may be governed by regulation,contract,Technical specificationsor other publishedstandards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as * Theprecision and accuracyof measurement and the associat eduncertainty of measurement * The statistical agency intervalortolerance intervalof the initial measurement * The number ofsignificant figuresof the measurement The intend use of the measurement including theengineering tolerances Some changeovers from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increase or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes calledsoft conversion. It does not involve changing the physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, ahard conversionor anadaptive conversionmay not be exactly equivalent. It changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration, or size substitution, of the item.Nominal valuesare sometimes allowed and used. contemporaries factors Conversion between units in themetric systemcan be discerned by theirprefixes(for example, 1 kilogram = 1000grams, 1 milligram = 0. 001grams) and are thus not l isted in this article. Exceptions are made if the unit is commonly known by another name (for example, 1 micron = 10? 6metre). control panel ordering Within each table, the units are listed alphabetically, and theSIunits (base or derived) are highlighted. - Tables of conversion factorsThis article gives lists of conversion factors for each of a number of physical quantities, which are listed in the index. For each physical quantity, a number of different units (some only of historical interest) are shown and expressed in terms of the corresponding SI unit. falsehood Symbol Definition ? exactly equal to ? approximately equal to digits indicates thatdigitsrepeat infinitely (e. g. 8. 294369corresponds to8. 294369369369369) (H) of chiefly historical interest ASSIGNMENT IN PHYSICS I-LEC Submitted by Balagtas, Glen Paulo R. BS Marine Transportation-I Submitted to Mrs. Elizabeth Gabriel Professor in Physics-LecJose Rizal compose a reflection paper tracing the development of Rizal as a r eformist who began to work for changes in his country using a) one (1) work from Rizal As A Reformist b) the Noli Me Tangere Show also the significance of these works on Filipino high society today and how it can change todays trends. Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa by Dr. Jose P. Rizal (keyword bang of country) Rizals Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa was written in 1882 when Rizal was 21 historic period old.Rizal was away in Spain for only a month, which may have inspired him to write this publications because he misses his homeland. This work of Rizal is a very significant work of Rizal as a reformist because it expresses his dear love for his native land. As he wrote this literature and felt his love for his country, he builds the foundation of him being a reformist because of the drive to fight for change. by means of Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa, Rizal realizes how much he loves his country and that it has fallen into the wrong governance and that this needs to be changed.Through the l ines Maging anuman nga ang kalagayan natin, ay nararapat nating mahalin siya at walang ibang bagay na dapat naisin tayo kundi ang kagalingan niya (referring to Philippines) Rizal explicitly reveals his love for the country and expresses the importance to love and work for the betterment of our homeland. It can also be seen in these lines that even if he is out of the country studying, he will do his part as a Filipino to fight for the rights of every Filipino.Today, this work of Rizal may allot as a reminder for all the people in this country that being a Filipino calls for a duty to act our native land and fellow citizens. If though Rizals work, Filipinos realize their duty as a citizen and love for their country, the Philippines would be a better place to live in and it would be easy to manipulate the society towards a furtherive nation. Noli Me Tangere by Dr. Jose P. Rizal Rizals well-known novel entitled Noli Me Tangere is one of his works that intelligibly expresses Rizal as a reformist.Rizal finished his first novel when he was at the age of 26 years old. The hero was penniless, good thanks to his friend Maximo Viola who supported him and shouldered the publication of this novel, the reason why we have a copy in our hands. In this novel, Rizal conveys his belief that breeding is very important and is an utile tool for reform in the country. Rizal was very brave to depict the issues in the Philippines such as corruptness and oppression through the characters and storyline in his novel.The Noli Me Tangere was a very expressive move of Rizal to start the vex for liberal reform for the country. In this book, Rizal shares his personal experiences at the harsh hands of the Spaniards, as well as experiences shared by his loved ones. Rizals brave soul to publish a novel containing these experiences and lessons, encourages Filipinos to be continuous is learning as he did. It again, boils down to his belief that education will strengthen ones principles i n life and even open your world to the experiences of other people.Until today, Noli Me Tangere and its sequel El Filibusterismo serve as an inspiration for writers to express through literature any present issues in the society. It also evokes the cerebration of liberalism in such a way that Filipinos has become open-minded to innovations and beliefs that will benefit the country. Most importantly, education is very well valued, as tool needed by every individual to help progress the country.